classical plaster casts

In the period under review, it is possible to identify a variety of such connections: James De Ville worked for Joseph Nollekens, Matthew Mazzoni for Richard Westmacott, James Cockaine and Peter Sarti for Francis Chantrey, Fernando Meacci for Edward Onslow Ford and Alfred Gilbert, the Smiths for Eric Gill and Charles Wheeler and ‘Mac’ Mancini for Barbara Hepworth. Each cast is hand-finished in the studio, suggesting how the hand of the artist might affect a finished piece. We might also wonder how the change in medium, from marble or bronze to plaster, alters how we feel about that sculpture. Plaster casts, generally in the form of classical figures, were used as elegant supports for interior lighting, a trade which reached its height in the early 19th century. The focus of the South Kensington Museum from the mid-1850s was on obtaining plaster casts and electrotypes of European mediaeval and renaissance works of art and monuments. A cast might even be painted, reproducing an aspect of classical sculpture that is … Casts from both institutions eventually came to the Victoria and Albert Museum, from the former in 1916 and from the latter, in smaller numbers, following the disastrous Crystal Palace fire in 1936. As one leading sculptor put it, ‘a moulder… is to the profession what a frame-maker is to the painter’ (E. Roscoe Mullins, A Primer of Sculpture, 1889, p.21). This account takes up where Timothy Clifford’s essay, The Plaster Shops of the Rococo and Neo-Classical Era in Britain leaves off (Clifford 1992). Cantoni produced various reproductions for the Museum, 1892-1912, mainly plaster casts, copies of which were supplied to other museums including those at Edinburgh and Dublin and he also undertook some bronze founding work. They were also used as sources of inspiration for artists, designers and others, whether in artists’ studios or in museums and academies. Fig.5. Of Flaxman, it was said that he had ‘kept a large shop in the Strand, for the sale of plaster figures, which was not then so hackneyed a trade, as it has now become by the large importation of Italians’ (Gentleman’s Magazine, vol. 97, 1827, p. 273). This is the Museum of Classical Archaeology Collections online database of the plaster cast, pottery sherd and paper squeeze collections. Retailing of plaster figures took place through street trading in London and elsewhere and by travel to provincial towns to set up temporary shop, in both cases with a view to the household market for popular and contemporary figures. Substitutes for a Master: use technology to improve your artistic skills. For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography. Domenico Brucciani’s success as the leading Victorian plaster figure maker came as a result of a competition to select a moulder in 1853 or 1854 for what became the South Kensington Museum. But after a few years I stopped selling my own Plaster Casts and put affiliate offers from Amazon on my website, where I earned a small commission. Plaster Cast Interiors – There’s a wide range of weird and wonderful plaster casts available here. Nineteenth century Art instruction often included the use of sculptural models as teaching aids for drawing, painting, study of anatomy and sculpture study, known as Drawing Casts to emphasize the study of form and the visual effect that light and shadow had on these forms. Joseph Caproni employed five men in 1871 and Onarato Regali six or seven. Robert Shout’s broadside catalogue (detail), c.1800-3 (National Portrait Gallery Library). Collecting by museums and academies 5. Plaster casts and the diffusion of classical art (adapted from a lecture given by Dr. D.C.Kurtz in the Louvre on 15 November 2000 for a day of lectures on Les collections de moulages: un musee ideal? He identified the importance of the Act of Parliament passed in 1798 relating to ‘Making New Models and Casts of Busts’, a form of copyright which conferred exclusive rights for 14 years on persons who created new models or casts of human or animal figures if marked with publication details. Plaster casts, generally in the form of classical figures, were used as elegant supports for interior lighting, a trade which reached its height in the early 19th century. They met with considerable success and were followed by Matthew Mazzoni by c.1803, Peter Sarti by 1816, Lewis Brucciani in c.1820 and Domenico Cardosi and Giovanni Franchi by c.1830, as well as others. The student´s next step in a classical atelier after having done a couple of Bargue drawings is the cast drawing. When I started my online activities in the field of classical art, I offered my own Plaster Casts for Cast Drawing at a reasonable price at www.cast-drawing.com, as the market only offered expensive goods from real sculptors.People were happy to accept my Plaster Casts, because it was exactly what they needed to learn drawing from plaster casts. t: 020 7223 2360 e: [email protected] Lavender Hill Colours ® 146, Battersea Business Centre 99-109 Lavender Hill London SW11 5QL Very Fine. The younger generation of English-born makers, with a few exceptions such as Robert Shout, did not play such a significant part in the popular market and diversified into related trades as did James Cockaine, James De Ville, Humphrey Hopper and William Pink. These most often are anatomical plaster casts. This development was a matter of comment at the time. Advertising more than 300 plaster figures of classical and modern subjects. The trade outside London was smaller but still dominated by Italians: Luke O’Neil in Edinburgh by c.1784 (he was also a firework maker), Pellegrino Mazzotti in Norwich before 1819, Tognieri in Bath by the 1820s and Pieroni in the 1850s, and Papera junior and Andrea Giuntini in Cheltenham in the 1840s, to name but some of the makers active in a few selected centres. Such casts could serve a practical purpose for artists. The leading English figure makers of the late 18th century were in retreat: John Cheere died in 1787, James Hoskins in 1791, William Collins in 1793, Charles Harris in 1795, Richard Parker in 1799 and John Flaxman senior in 1803. The Gallery holds the most extensive collection of portraits in the world. Antonio and Louis Caproni would also promote their wares to a professional market, advertising as moulders and figure makers, offering figures for lights and gardens, figures painted and bronzed, masks taken from the living and the dead, adding ‘Casts taken from Gelatina’ (Blower's architect's, surveyor's, engineer's and builder's directory, 1860). Best value for money. However, the connection between sculptor and moulder was a very old one. Charles Stewart Parnell, plaster cast attributed to Fernando Meacci of bust by Mary Grant, 1892 (National Portrait Gallery). Very Cheap (fig.3), shows how well-established this street trade had become in the public imagination by the time of its publication in 1815. There were other aspects to the trade. Lippert in the … Fig. Nothing special and in any case not expensive. The collection of plaster casts of the former Trustees’ Academy in Edinburgh – the first public school of art in Britain, founded in 1760 – was acquired in the late 18th- and early 19th-century for … People were happy to accept my Plaster Casts, because it was exactly what they needed to learn drawing from plaster casts. Such private collections, however, remained modest and uncommon until the 18th century. The more established makers would advertise in the press and elsewhere and might focus on the trade in casts and reproductions for museums, professionals and schools of art. Click the link and you will be directed to the shop page were all my Plaster Casts are displayed: You can enter the code on the cart page as well as on the checkout page. Print your own Munsell Color Reference Charts at home on your desktop inkjet printer! Once the market had been exhausted, the master would send his moulds and tools to Geneva, and follow on foot with his troop, each of whom would carry a few figures to sell at towns and villages on the road. These figure makers left ‘Little Italy' and Clerkenwell to follow the sculptors, whether to Chelsea, Fulham or St John's Wood. All about the academic Cast Drawing – The best resources, How the ateliers teach you to paint like the Old Masters. plaster cast for 0.0 Check out my other items!WHY NOT CHECK OUT THE OTHER ITEMS IN MY SHOP MANY FINE EXAMPLES UP FOR GRABSAS OTHERWISE STATED IN ITEM … Indeed, the image of a youth holding aloft a tray of plaster figures became one of the 19th-century ‘Cries of London’. Sculptors’ moulders from 1880. By 1842, the Museum was offering a service to despatch casts to any part of the world (Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum, 1842, p.258, accessible through Google Book Search). The database depends on Kurtz's Reception of Classical Art in Britain, an Oxford story of plaster casts … One or two men, experienced in casting figures in moulds, would collect a number of poor boys, of whom they would become the captains. On arriving at Chambery, the artist, or the captain of this company would set to work, despatching his boys through the city and the little towns and villages in the neighbourhood, to sell the figures which he had rapidly made. In December 1850, Antonio and Luigi Caproni announced in the Newcastle Courant that Luigi Caproni had taken a show room in the Collingwood Inn in Newcastle to exhibit his splendid collection of statuettes, suitable for the artist or for ornament (the advertisement is headed, ‘Fine Arts! Fig.4. April 2020. Brucciani’s appointment to the South Kensington Museum was followed by his selection as formatore to the British Museum in 1857, following William Pink’s death. In the 1861 census Domenico Brucciani, the best known London cast maker who made classical casts for study by art students at the South Kensington School and many others, employed 25 men and five boys. Such figures might be bronzed to give them a more solid appearance and to suit the heavy feel of Regency interiors. Where an individual maker or a particular cast collection is referred to in the above text, the information is sourced in the online directory, British bronze sculpture founders and plaster figure makers, 1800-1980. One of the largest such groups arrived in the Port of London from Boulogne on 9 May 1853, with 14 men and boys led by Luigi and Pietro Sarti. Articles explore the functions, status and reception of plaster casts … Plaster is white so there is no color distracting the student. In the second half of the 19th century, London institutions and museums were actively building collections of  casts of architectural details and of works of art, as well as of fixed monumental work, both from Britain and abroad. Developments in the plaster figure trade 2. They would find plaster and other simple materials for forming figures locally. Four figure makers, Brucciani, a Mr Caproni, a Mr Sacchi and a Mr Ambrosi were each asked to make a mould of a certain relief. Such figure makers, their occupation given as figure maker or as ‘figurista’ in the vernacular, would travel from France, usually in April, May or June, at the beginning of the summer season. Admiral Lord Nelson, plaster cast by Dominic Cardosi, 1830s or later, from bust by Franz Thaller and Matthias Ranson, 1801) (National Portrait Gallery). This trade began in about 1820 and was extremely popular for several decades. In London directories, ‘plaster cast figure makers’ of apparently Italian origin, already common at the beginning of the 19th century, dominated as the century progressed (as analysed by Peter Malone). His overalls were stiff and heavy with plaster splashings and were never cleaned and his boots never scraped after a day’s paddling around in gypsum… But what a worker he was, and what skill he had acquired in a long life and in the service of many of the leading sculptors of the day.’. Evidence for migrant groups of plaster figure makers in Britain comes through the official ‘Returns of Aliens Passengers’, recording foreigners landing in Britain and through the 10 yearly census returns. Fig.6. Many of the casts from these expeditions came to the British Museum. Collections were assembled in boxes which could be transported. From there, they would cross France, perhaps to Fontainebleau, and so on to Paris, Amiens and Calais and finally to England in search of ‘a golden harvest’. Some expeditions further afield were privately financed. Italian figure makers in the 19th century 4. Switchboard: +44 (0) 20 7306 0055, We are currently closed until spring 2023, while essential building works take place, 1. It was also a time when the demand for bronze statues was growing as a result of the desire to commemorate the wartime heroes and political leaders of the day through public statues and church monuments. In the event, the Victoria and Albert Museum did take on Brucciani’s cast making business from 1921, renaming it the Department for the Sale of Casts while retaining the same manager, Paul Ryan. Showing his collection of classical plaster casts and modern marble busts. They are of interest to classical archaeologists, art historians, the history of collecting, curators, conservators, collectors and artists. The number of Italian figure makers in and around 'Little Italy' and in the wider Holborn area, peaked in the early 1860s, judging from census records, as the third largest trade undertaken by Italians in the area, after street musicians and picture framemakers (Lucio Sponza, Italian Immigrants in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Realities and Images, 1988, p.328). Although the market today for new bronze sculpture has somewhat declined, and with it the need for such a network of independent sculptors’ moulders, the continuing importance of casting and working in plaster and similar materials can be seen from the work of artists as varied as Rachel Whiteread and Thomas Houseago. The links between Italian figure-making families who settled in England could be close, with marriages between families, Giovanni Franchi to Mary Sarti in 1831, Raffaello Sani to Emilia Caproni in 1861 and Enrico Cantoni to Florence Landi in 1888, and premises passing from one hand to another, so that we find No.1 Leather Lane occupied by Vincent Merchitti by 1837, Giovanni Graziani by 1850, who went into partnership with Domenico Brucciani, and by Daniele Landi in 1880, who remained in possession until 1902. Another figure maker, Raffaello Sani set up temporarily in Portsea, advertising a fine collection of Italian sculpture and alabaster carvings in the Hampshire Telegraph in 1869. Both Barbara Hepworth and Maurice Lambert used ‘the renowned plaster caster’, Domenico (‘Mac’) Mancini. Our cast collection is one of very few surviving plaster cast collections in the world today – and we have more than 450 of our casts on display in the Cast Gallery, including our famous painted … Eleven weeks later, Luigi announced his impending departure from Newcastle, naming some of his mythological and other figures, some ‘newly brought over from France’, also referring to busts by Chantrey and Baily. Make sure you order the plain white finish. Cast-Drawing.com – Based in Germany, this is where I ordered my first cast … They would cross the Apennines and the Alps, marching in a little corps of twelve or fifteen. Remember that the code is only valid until 30. The use of plaster casts in the early 19th century, 3. They can be finished in a variety of patinas. The authorities at the Crystal Palace in south London, which opened in 1854, sought casts of great works of art across Europe and beyond. These modules will cover proportion, shape, angles, values and mass starting with Bargue drawing studies (2D - 2D) and progressing onto chiaroscuro techniques from simple classical plaster casts (3D - 2D). They are of interest to classical archaeologists, art historians, the history of collecting, curators, conservators, collectors and artists. William Blake, plaster cast of head by James De Ville, published 1823 (National Portrait Gallery). Fig.2. Developments in the plaster figure trade, 2. There was also a period when plaster phrenological heads were a focus for the study of the human head. The market for plaster figures reached its height in the 19th century. Discovery, reception and diffusion of classical art - Sculpture - The Classical Art Research Centre and The Beazley Archive - The University of Oxford The business of producing plaster figures became associated with immigrant Italian workers, mainly from the province of Lucca, who would come to London in groups and who would sell plaster figures on the streets. James De Ville in London and Luke O’Neil in Edinburgh were the leading suppliers of such plaster heads. Ceiling roses provide a decorative … Read … Not all moulders were Italian. Texts address plaster casts and related themes from antiquity to the present day, and from Egypt to America, Mexico and New Zealand. Clifford saw the great boom in plaster shops as dwindling and collapsing in the 1830s but it is now clear that while the market for figures for lighting and furniture declined, there was a growing interest in collecting plaster casts for museums and academies, as well as a taste for more modest figures in ordinary homes. In 1858 a court case against a master, Luigi Caproni, was dismissed concerning the wages of Mansueto Mei, a plaster figure maker who had left him after 20 months of a 30-month contract to make images. After that the code no longer works. Sculptors’ moulders became a specialist branch of plaster figure working, producing piece and waste moulds, gelatine moulds and plaster and wax casts, so necessary in the production of bronze sculpture. In the case of Papera, we know that he built up a remarkable clientele of leading figures in society within a few years of arrival, including the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Warwick, Sir George Beaumont and Sarah Siddons. The privileged position of sculpture in the study of classical antiquity, strong from association with classical texts was strengthened further during the second half of the 19th century by the remarkable discoveries of originals in Greece. It was possible to hire plaster figures, as Nollekens informed his fellow sculptor, Francis Chantrey, ‘You may hire casts at Papera's and Genelli's’, and as the amateur artist, Sarah Harriet Burney, told a friend in 1804, ‘By subscribing a shilling a week to Papara, the Plaisterman, I got what busts or whole length figures I pleased’ – which she could then use in her studies. Largest of sculptures to the smallest of artefacts to learn drawing from plaster casts, Bristol elsewhere! Head by James De Ville in London by 1777, Anthony Sartini by 1785 Bartholomew... For home for civic spaces and for statuettes for domestic interiors developed rapidly available here a focus the. Only valid until 30 could be both an ornament and an inspiration twice and as. We feel about that sculpture study of the human form, as well as plaster shapes... There is no color distracting the student at the time makers only to! 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