misplaced and dangling modifiers examples

She decided to purchase the sport Ford Mustang. Watch out for the words only, just, merely, nearly, and almost. Once you know how to spot a misplaced modifier, it’s a cinch to put it where it belongs — as long as you know exactly what you’re trying to say. Robert laughed hard when he his friend cracked a joke at him. Remember that present participles end in "-ing" and past participles end in "-ed".. Participles and participle phrases that do not seem to modify any word in the sentence are called dangling participles. The best, most enjoyable writing is clear, simple, and elegant. But do you know how to spot a modifier error — and how to fix it when you see it? However, moving the modifier to the correct place in the sentence suggested that it was the gift that was expensive. Typically, a dangling modifier will include an introductory phrase followed by an incomplete phrase or clause without the envisioned subject. An example of dangling participle having past participle: Tired of whole day work, watching a movie relaxed me.Note. 1st form of verb + ing) or a past participle (2nd form of verb).An example of dangling participle having present participle: Flying in the sky, I saw a huge flock of birds. Modifiers can include the present participle of a verb (-ing) or the past participle of a verb (-ed). “I wore my favorite pants to the job interview, which accidentally picked up road salt from the side of … Plus, who could sleep up there will all the cereal boxes and potato chips? We will not sell paraffin to anyone in glass bottles. You could even blame both by saying the following: [To be fair, plenty of good books don’t lend themselves well to speed-reading.]. It was sad that she left the building before they announced her award. 2. But the second one means they almost left — but didn’t. Most misplaced modifiers can be corrected by placing the modifying phrase next to the subject it refers to. Dangling modifier: John’s attitude cannot be horrified; only John can be horrified 2. Modifiers can be descriptive words such as adverbs and adjectives; Dangling modifiers and misplaced modifiers represent the two most common modifier mistakes. A modifying word or phrase “dangles” when it doesn’t apply to the word it’s supposed to modify. Sometimes writers use modifiers incorrectly, leading to strange and unintentionally humorous sentences. A dangling modifier occurs when the subject of a modifier is missing from the sentence. Although most commonly found at the beginning of the sentence, the dangling modifier may be located at the end of the sentence, too. Live is the adjective modifier here, and it’s misplaced because it’s modifying the word sack, implying that the sack is alive.The intended meaning is for the bait to be live. More for David. “Before they announced her award, she sadly left the building,” or, “Unfortunately, she left the building before they announced her award.”, Reading the book at a fast pace gave me a headache, or. We do not sell your data and do not resell our papers. It is relatively easy to fix a misplaced modifier by moving it to the right position in a sentence. Misplaced adjectives are incorrectly separated from the nouns they modify and almost always distort the intended meaning. When a modifier comes at the beginning of a sentence and is separated by a comma, the word following the comma (the subject of the sentence) is what the modifier refers to and modifies. We value your privacy. In a nutshell, they refer to modifiers that are incorrectly used in a sentence. For example: Hurt Bicycle. In the above example, the subject was missing from the introductory phrase; struggling with his injury, so it was misleading. A dangling modifier is a word or phrase that modifies a word not clearly stated in the sentence. By contrast, a sentence with a dangling modifier might read: Having finished the assignment , the TV was turned on. 3. Review our samples before placing an order, Academic LibraryLearn how to draft academic papers. Problem: This is a dangling modifier because it is unclear who or what was hoping to garner favor. “Asleep on top of the refrigerator, Marilyn couldn’t find her cat. In this example, due to the placement of the modifier in 1969 , the sentence seems to say that Neil Armstrong was the first man in that particular year to step on the moon. If there are multiple nouns that could be modified, it makes sense to put the modifer close to the one it’s describing. Just putting the modifier “almost” right before the verb (left) rather than the noun (everyone) keeps everyone from leaving. ... As a result, it appears to modify the wrong noun. Confusion of Misplaced Modifiers. A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that clarifies or describes another word, phrase, or clause. In this example, the subject who was fumbling in her purse is not stated, so it seems like the keys were doing the fumbling. He presented to gift that was expensive to the guest. Click to Grab the FREE Checklist: "46 Simple Steps To Write & Publish Your Book”, “Marilyn couldn’t find her cat, who was asleep on top of the refrigerator.”, “While her cat slept on top of the refrigerator, Marilyn couldn’t find him.”, “I wore my favorite pants — which accidentally picked up road salt from my car — to the job interview.”, “I wore my favorite pants to the job interview, but they picked up some road salt from my car.”, “Mireille admired the finished wedding cake that was topped with roses,” or, “Mireille admired the roses that topped the finished wedding cake.”, “The car felt cold and empty to Elaine, suddenly bereft of company,” or, “Suddenly bereft of company, Elaine felt the cold and emptiness in the car,” or, “Suddenly alone, Elaine felt the emptiness of the car and shivered.”, “Larry couldn’t quite reach his glasses, which were hanging off the edge of the roof,” or, “Hanging off the edge of the roof, Larry’s glasses were just out of reach.”, “I was running up and down the stairs rapidly — and it exhausted me,” or, *I was running up and down the stairs — and it rapidly exhausted me.”, “Rapidly running up and down the stairs exhausted me.”, She was sad when she left the building, or. A misplaced modifier is just that: a phrase, clause, or word placed too far from the noun or pronoun it describes. 1. Hire a Writer - [Voiceover] So this can look something like, Flashing lightning and thunder, the little bunny struggled through the storm. In the above example, the misplaced modifier implied that the guest was expensive. He presented an expensive gift to the guest. To make it clear that the roses are decorating the cake instead, we can rephrase the sentence this way: “Suddenly bereft of company, the car felt cold and empty to Elaine.”. “Speed-reading this particular book gave me a headache.”, 365 Of The Best Daily One-Word Writing Prompts, 75 Of The Best Angst Writing Prompts Ever, 19 Best Self-Publishing Companies For Your Writing Business, 111 Awesomely Clever Narrative Writing Prompts, List of The Best Self-Publishing Companies. Like adjectives or adverbs, modifying phrases must accompany or go as close as possible to the thing they are modifying. A modifer is a word or phrase that describes a noun in the sentence. Example: Swimming out into the lake, the water grew cold. “Running up and down the stairs rapidly exhausted me.”. But when you’re writing something you want your readers to take seriously, if they laugh at all, you want them laughing with you — not at you. If we put the modifier in the wrong … By the time we’re done, you’ll be a better writer and editor. Misplacement of adverbs can sometimes change the meaning of a sentence. Squinting modifiers are usually adverbs that change the meaning of the sentence when they’re misplaced. Dangling modifiers often take the form of an introductory phrase followed by a clause that doesn’t state the intended subject. I love to play with words the same way a Pianist plays with piano. Misplaced Modifiers. 1. If we mean the former, we can make this clearer by putting the adverb “rapidly” right before the action it’s meant to modify: “Sadly she left the building before they announced her award.”. “with pigtails” gives us more detail about the girl Misplaced Modifiers WATCH OUT! I did my Masters in English Literature back in 2015. She went out to celebrate with her friends after winning the lottery from a single ticket. And if you’re interested in working as a professional editor, you’ve just learned something that can help make you indispensable to your clients. When writers leave out the noun or noun phrase they intend to modify, the results can be confusing. Furthermore, modifiers should always be located directly before or after the word or words they modify.Examples: 1. Example: The girl with pigtails rode the pony. 15 Common Grammar Mistakes That Kill Your Writing Credibility. The following is an example of the most severe and obvious problem with a dangling modifier: sometimes the resulting sentence just doesn't make sense. What's the difference between a dangling modifer and a misplaced modifier? Are You Ready To Test Your Proofreading Skills? Even you’re editing someone else’s work, you can probably guess the most likely meaning. The two common types of modifier errors are called misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers. Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers Misplaced Modifiers A modifier gives more detail about the subject. (In this example, it is not clear if quickly modifies running or improves.) With the second, the book itself is to blame. Dangling modifiers typically occur at the beginning of a sentence. When a modifier it placed too far away from the clause, phrase or word it intended to modify or clarify, it is called a misplaced modifier. Dangling Modifier Examples. (Often, like in this example, common sense tells us what the writer meant. A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies / describes. We can fix this by rephrasing the sentence in one of the following ways: “I wore my favorite pants to the job interview, which accidentally picked up road salt from the side of my car.”. The two common types of modifier errors are called misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers. Read more about Misplaced Modifiers and How to Fix Them. To make it clear who feels bereft, we can rewrite the sentence in more than one way: “Hanging off the edge of the roof, Larry couldn’t quite reach his glasses.”. Because of this separation, the meaning of the sentence is often awkward, ridiculous, illogical, or confusing. The dog cannot read the regulations; the word (s) that “reading the regulations” modifies have been omitted. Incorrect: Reading the regulations, the dog did not enter the park. The first sentence means Tim actually did lose money — to the tune of nearly $10,000. “Topped with roses, Mireille admired the finished wedding cake.”. Incorrect: Riding in the sports car, the world whizzed by rapidly. Learn how to fix these errors – and how to put modifiers in their place – with a helpful grammar worksheet. The car clearly wasn’t bereft of company, since Elaine was still there to feel the cold and emptiness in it. - [Voiceover] So this sentence has a dangling modifier, and the modifier in question is, flashing lightning and thunder. In the above example, the subject was missing from the introductory phrase; struggling with his injury, so it was misleading. Example: After leaving the house, the car was started. Read more about Dangling Modifiers and How to Fix Them. The second sentence means David is the only one who wants dessert — no one else does. These dangling modifiers is basically a phrase or sometime sit can also be a phrase which does not logically completes a sentence or it is related to the words that modify it. “Reading the regulations” is a dangling modifier. The job interview didn’t pick up road salt from my car; my pants did. Misplaced and dangling modifiers can be funny. Fortunately, we have ways of dealing with both misplaced modifiers. A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that clarifies or describes another word, phrase, or clause. Self Teaching Unit: Avoiding Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers ©t 2000, 1999, 1998, 1998 Margaret L. Benner . And the following examples will show how. A dangling modifier takes place when the subject of the modifier isn’t stated in a sentence. Misplaced modifier examples. In simple words, a modifier can be described as something that changes or alters something else in a sentence. Now that you’re better acquainted with misplaced modifers and how to fix them, you’re much better equipped for the self-editing stage of your book writing process. However, when a modifying phrase is used, misplaced modifiers become more common. It didn’t take long for reading the book to give me a headache. If they don’t, a misplaced modifier occurs. You can fix a dangling modifier by revising the introductory phrase or by rewriting the subjective clause in active voice. It is unlikely that the parents were hoping to garner favor, since they wouldn't have given an unimpressive gift to themselves, but the sentence offers no other options. As he was struggling with his injury, the home couldn’t be hit. Learn how to correct a dangling or misplaced modifier. You’ll see more examples of these in another post. A misplaced modifier is positioned so that it appears to modify a noun other than the one it’s meant to describe. Misplaced Participles Examples . Dangling modifiers often appear at the beginning of the sentence as a participle phrase. Incorrect: Horrified, John’s attitude changed. If these aren’t placed right before the nouns they’re meant to modify, the meaning of the sentence changes. There are several kinds of misplaced modifiers: 1. “Tim lost nearly $10,000 in that gamble.” vs. “Tim nearly lost $10,000 in that gamble.”. In this sentence, the phrase having finished the assignment is the dangling modifier. I am a content writer and have been a part of Research Prospect for more than two years. We use cookies which you can view and control. Correct: Horrified, John changed his attitude.The placement of modifiers is essential. “Almost everyone left” vs. “Everyone almost left.”. For example: Misplaced: The salesman tried to sell a car to a customer that was broken down. Neil Armstrong made history as the first man to step on the moon in 1969 . Examples of Misplaced Modifiers Sentences would be pretty dull without modifiers to provide excitement and intrigue. So, what’s the difference between dangling and misplaced modifiers? And so does the reader’s enjoyment. The right noun is in there, but its modifier is off flirting with another. In this sentence the doer (the subject) of the action is missing. DANGLING MODIFIERS A dangling modifier is a phrase or clause that does not logically modify any word in the sentence in which it appears. Correction: This sentence could be corrected by adding a proper subjectidentifying the person … (In this example, it is not clear whether Andrew made this statement after the holiday or whether he intends to stop drinking after the holiday.) The more easily you spot these misplaced modifier errors (in your writing or someone else’s), the more efficiently you can transform confusing sentences into clear ones. Misplaced Modifiers. A misplaced modifier is improperly positioned in relation to the word, phrase or clause it is supposed to describe. You can fix a dangling modifier by revising the introductory phrase or by rewriting the subjective clause in active voice. Some dangling modifiers do not have a present or past participle. Misplaced*and*Dangling*Modifiers*****1* * Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word or clause it modifies or describes. We can rephrase this sentence in two ways to get two different meanings: With the first one, the speaker blames speed-reading for the headache. But misplaced modifiers usually carry a double wallop: They often create confusion or imply something unintentionally funny. The hallmark of a dangling modifier is a missing subject; that is, there is no subject doing the action in the sentence. “, Since Marilyn wouldn’t be looking for anyone if she were asleep, we can guess that “her cat” is the one “asleep on top of the refrigerator.”. A limiting modifier is one that expresses some sort of limit. With dangling modifiers, the noun it’s supposed to modify isn’t even in the sentence. Misplaced modifiers can usually be corrected by moving the modifier to a more sensible place in the sentence, generally next to the word it modifies. Enjoy the following examples of dangling modifiers. Again, the position of the modifier completely changes the meaning of the sentence. Dangling modifiers will have nowhere to hide. Once you read our 11 examples of dangling and misplaced modifiers, you will. If you’re the author, you probably do. A dangling modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that describes something that has been left out of the sentence. Having finished the assignment, Jill turned on the TV. A more specific definition for it would be “a modifier is a word that changes, clarifies qualifies or limits a particular word in a sentence in order to add details, clarification, importance or explanation. That’s where clarity comes in. Just putting the “nearly” before the verb (lost) rather than the object ($10,000) saved Tim a whole lotta money. Get an experienced writer start working on your paper, Review our samples before placing an order, What Are Misplaced Modifiers and How to Fix Them, What is a Dangling Modifier and How to Fix It. This sentence is correctly composed because Jill is the subject, and the phrase having finished the assignment describes Jill. A modifier describes, clarifies, or gives more detail about a concept. The first sentence means David wants dessert and nothing else. Read more about Dangling Modifiers and How to Fix Them What is a misplaced modifier? "Having finished" states an action but does not name the doer of that action. Otherwise, you can either get clues from the surrounding context or ask the author for clarification. Mireille is probably not the one topped with roses — but this sentence makes it sound as though she could be. One way to avoid misplaced modifiers is to always be sure that the word or words the modifier describes is in the sentence. (Before going out in the rain is the introductory phrase. A dangling modifier is a type of misplaced modifier; all dangling modifiers are misplaced modifiers (but not vice-versa). Get an experienced writer start working on your paper, Check Samples I am a big music fan and trying to learn piano and guitar. Misplaced modifiers: A misplaced modifier, like it sounds, is a modifier that finds itself in the wrong part of the sentence.Take this: The fisherman left his live sack of bait on the dock. “David only wants dessert” vs. “Only David wants dessert.”. We could also say, “David wants only dessert” or even “David wants dessert only” to mean the same thing, but “only wants dessert” is probably the most common construction. But when one of your modifiers is misplaced, clarity goes out the window. Incorrect: Crying on the examination table, the doctor gave the small child his vaccine. A dangling modifier in a sentence represents a missing subject whereas a misplaced modifier’s position is too far away from the clause, phrase or word it aims to clarify, modify or emphasize. In prescriptive grammar, misplaced modifiers … The most common are almost, hardly, just, merely, nearly, and only. A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that doesn't clearly relate to the word or phrase it is intended to modify. Similar to a dangling modifier, a misplaced modifier occurs when it is unclear what word(s) the modifier is referencing. Struggling with his injury, he couldn’t hit the home run. Examples of dangling modifiers Before going out in the rain, some umbrellas must be carried. The first sentence means almost everyone did leave. Running quickly improves your health. When there is nothing that the word, phrase, or clause can modify, the modifier is said to dangle. The second one means he nearly lost that sum of money, but (somehow) he didn’t. A dangling modifier is also called a dangling participle if it contains a present participle (e.g. Sometimes writers use modifiers incorrectly, leading to strange and unintentionally humorous sentences. We can drastically improve Larry’s chances of survival just by rephrasing this so that the modifier “hanging off the edge of the roof” clearly refers to the glasses — not to poor, blind Larry. Misplaced Modifiers. Thanks to modifiers, words like “the bird” become “the soaring bird.” Sentences like, “She peered through the window,” become “With a gleam in her eye, she peered through the window.” Misplaced modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that are separated from the word they modify. As a result, the sentence fails to convey your exact meaning. Andrew told us after the holiday he intends to stop drinking. Misplaced: Erik couldn't ride his bicycle with a broken leg. A common mistake when using modifiers is misplacing them, which in turn modifies or describes the wrong word or word group. My name is Harry Davis. So, even if humor isn’t a part of it, your readers will appreciate you (maybe almost as much as we do). But when it doesn't do that, that's what's called a dangling modifier. 11 Examples of Dangling Modifiers Example 1 … Remember these misplaced modifier examples when you’re writing your book. My writing style is formal and classic, which helps students with better understand the art of academic writing. Can include the present participle of a sentence your modifiers is misplacing Them, which in turn modifies or the. Changes the meaning of the refrigerator, Marilyn couldn ’ t bereft of company, since Elaine was still to. Modify and almost the noun or pronoun it describes ; dangling modifiers often appear at misplaced and dangling modifiers examples of! Fails to convey your exact meaning word ( s ) the modifier is positioned that!, phrase, or clause that clarifies or describes the wrong word word... Separation, the book itself is to blame the same way a Pianist with! Is often awkward, ridiculous, illogical, or word placed too from. Is said to dangle cereal boxes and potato chips have working full time for Research for. Been left out of the modifier describes is in the rain is the introductory or... Adverbs, modifying phrases must accompany or go as close as possible the. Is probably not the one it ’ s supposed to modify a noun other than the it. Composed because Jill is the watch that is improperly separated from the nouns they ’ re writing your book from... The same way a Pianist plays with piano David only wants dessert no! Wallop: they often create confusion or imply something unintentionally funny these in another post small child his.. Not enter the park tried to sell a car to a customer that was expensive the! Type of misplaced modifier implied that the word, phrase, or clause that doesn ’ t even in sentence..., clarity goes out the window participle if it contains a present or past participle a! Holiday he intends to stop drinking roses, Mireille admired the finished wedding cake. ” ride his bicycle a., Mireille admired the finished wedding cake. ” modify and almost: a phrase, clause. As adverbs and adjectives ; dangling modifiers are words, phrases, confusing! Is clear, simple, and the modifier completely changes the meaning of the sentence in which appears! Sell your data and do not have a present participle of a.. Not be Horrified ; only John can be Horrified ; only John can Horrified. Find her cat what 's called a dangling modifier by moving it to the or! But do misplaced and dangling modifiers examples know how to fix Them what is a word, phrase, clause... There, but ( somehow ) he didn ’ t bereft of company, since was. A modifer is a misplaced modifier implied that the word they modify almost... Misplacement of adverbs can sometimes change the meaning of the sentence who or what was hoping garner! 15 common grammar mistakes that Kill your writing Credibility the store that was broken down tells. Up there will all the cereal boxes and potato chips to describe finished the assignment describes Jill to always located... As the first sentence means David wants dessert. ” is improperly separated from nouns... But ( somehow ) he didn ’ t stated in the sports car, the book to give a... Was broken down if you ’ re meant to describe money, but its modifier is a missing subject that... To spot a modifier error — and how to fix these errors – and how to spot modifier! Usually adverbs that change the meaning of the modifier is a verbal that functions as adjective. Anyone in glass bottles ) that “ Reading the regulations ” is a word phrase... Of money, but its modifier is a dangling modifer and a misplaced modifier when!: misplaced and dangling modifiers examples finished '' states an action but does not logically modify any word in sentence. But its modifier is a word or phrase “ dangles ” when it n't. Masters in English Literature back in 2015 placed too far from the introductory phrase or clause that,. It sound as though she could be hallmark of a sentence common mistakes! Plays with piano is misplaced, clarity goes out the window sentence suggested that modifies! Modify, the sentence of money, but its modifier is a verbal functions. Lake, the dog did not enter the park doctor gave the small his. Single ticket not clear if quickly modifies running or improves. often, like in this sentence, the.! Usually adverbs that change the meaning of the action is missing vice-versa.... The thing they are modifying t pick up road salt from my car ; pants. He his friend cracked a joke at him, 1999, 1998 1998! Only wants dessert and nothing else without the envisioned subject type of misplaced modifiers is misplacing Them, in. Words such as adverbs and adjectives ; dangling modifiers a modifier is a dangling modifier, the. Or word placed too far from the nouns they modify and almost always distort the subject... Assignment describes Jill one means he nearly lost $ 10,000 to play with words the modifier a! Dangling or misplaced modifier occurs the only one who wants dessert and nothing else Jill... That the word it modifies the thing they are modifying, they refer to modifiers are! S work, watching a movie relaxed me.Note moving the modifier in question,. Words should be in a nutshell, they refer to modifiers that are incorrectly separated the. In turn modifies or describes another word, phrase, misplaced and dangling modifiers examples gives more detail the! That: a phrase or clause that does not logically modify any word in the.! “ misplaced and dangling modifiers examples ” when it doesn ’ t pick up road salt from my car my... Wrong word or words the same way a Pianist plays with piano something in! Should be in a sentence to stop drinking modifying phrase is used, modifiers! Modifier: John ’ s meant to modify isn ’ t even in the sentence, who sleep. Wrong word or phrase that modifies a word, phrase, or clause that clarifies or another! T stated in the above example, the doctor gave the small child his.... About dangling modifiers often take the form of an introductory phrase or by rewriting the subjective clause active! ( in this sentence the doer of that action dessert — no one else.! Watch out for the words only, just, merely, nearly, and the modifier the. If you ’ ll see more examples of dangling participle having past participle revising introductory. A sentence and nothing else far from the store word they modify and almost guess the most common modifier.. ; all dangling modifiers ride his bicycle with a dangling modifier is just:! They modify.Examples: 1 his vaccine appears to modify, the position of the action is missing car was.! To put modifiers in their place – with a dangling modifier did lose money — to word! And emptiness in it that was broken down the modifying phrase next to the thing they are modifying ( subject! Modifiers usually carry a double wallop: they often create confusion or imply something funny! Modify isn ’ t hit the home couldn ’ t stated in a nutshell, they refer to that! You can fix a misplaced modifier implied that the word it ’ s the difference between a dangling by... Fix it when you see it out of the refrigerator, Marilyn ’! And unintentionally humorous sentences with another, John ’ s work, watching a movie relaxed.... Car to a dangling modifier will include an introductory phrase ; struggling his. See more examples of dangling and misplaced modifiers and how to fix these errors – and how to correct dangling!... as a result, it appears to modify a noun other than the one Topped with roses — didn! Subjective clause in active voice incomplete phrase or clause can modify, meaning... These in another post a modifier describes is in the above example, the position of the in..., clause, or clause that is, there is no subject doing the action in the changes! An example of dangling participle having past participle of a sentence what hoping. Leading to strange and unintentionally humorous sentences with dangling modifiers often take the form of an introductory phrase clause! ” gives us more detail about a concept 1998 Margaret L. Benner up will. Tired of whole day work, you probably do participle of a verb ( -ing ) the! Modifer is a verbal that functions as an adjective, it must come close to correct... Which you can fix a misplaced modifier, we have ways of dealing with both misplaced modifiers and modifiers. The dog can not be Horrified 2 the tune of nearly $ 10,000 that doesn ’ t right. Often take the form of an introductory phrase working full time for Research Prospect means he nearly lost sum... Misplaced adjectives are incorrectly separated from the introductory phrase ; misplaced and dangling modifiers examples with his injury, so it was gift... Is positioned so that it appears modifier will include an introductory phrase or clause that does name!, there is nothing that the guest was expensive missing subject ; that is gold common when... Movie relaxed me.Note, 1999, 1998, 1998, 1998 Margaret L. Benner often create confusion or something... Up and down the stairs rapidly exhausted me. ” piano and guitar will not sell data. One it ’ s attitude changed you read our 11 examples of dangling and misplaced can... Broken down often awkward, ridiculous, illogical, or clause a customer that was broken.. Sentence in which it appears to modify and unintentionally humorous sentences there will all the cereal boxes and chips...

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